Two magazines in the 1920s Shinseinen (New Youth)
and Kagaku Gaho
) played pivotal roles in the development and establishment of the modern Science Fiction genre in Japan. New Youth
, launched in 1920 was packed full of short stories targeting “urban modern men”, and quickly became an outlet and publishing platform for science-fiction-type stories and detective stories.
The editor of the magazine grouped these stories into two categories: 1) honkaku
(classic) and 2) henkaku
Science fiction fell into the latter and was, according to Robert Matthew in his book Japanese Science Fiction: A View of a Changing Society
, initially categorized in Japan in its modern form as ‘irregular detective fiction’ Science Pictorial
, set up just after Amazing Stories,
a science fiction magazine
launched in the United States in April 1926 by Hugo Gernsback
’s Experimenter Publishing, also played a critical role. Gernsback is generally credited for the first use of the term Science Fiction. Both magazines were the first in each country to be devoted solely to science fiction. Science Pictorial
‘s mission at launch was to “seek revolutionary works of high literary value which are purely scientific in their material and do not lapse into the detective style ”.
The two Japanese magazines published stories such as: Jinzo Ningen
) by Hatsunosuke Hirabayashi (1892-1932), which is often cited by academics as a classic example of Japan’s so-called “early Showa robot literature”, which there was lots of. Other notable examples include: Chitei Jigoku
(The Animal Kingdom Under the Earth)
by Juran Kuze (1901-1946); and Shindoma
(The Demon of Vibration
) by Juza Unno (1897-1949), who is sometimes referred to as the Father of Japanese Science Fiction.
Despite this early creativity, the terms Science Fiction (Saiensufikushon
), SF and Sci-Fi, however, only came into use in Japan after the Second World War.
Nevertheless, the words Kagaku Shosetsu
(科学小説), which is still occasionally used today, alongside Kuusou Kagaku Shosetsu
(空想科学小説), meaning imaginary science novel, were coined as early as 1886 for the Japanese “scientific novel”.
The genre’s roots, however, go back much further in Japan to stories known as Mirai-ki
. Nonetheless, the genesis of today’s science fiction writing in Japan is said to be the translation into Japanese of the French author and playwright Jules Verne’s (1828-1905) novels in the 1880s.
Verne’s books arrived during a period of rapid modernisation and change in Japan known as the Meiji Era (1868-1912), when Japan was opening up to Western influence after the resignation of the Shogun and more than two hundred years of self-imposed isolation. Verne’s books and others like them had a major impact on readers and budding authors. New Youth
and Science Pictorial
provided the platforms for Japanese writers interested in science and fiction, who grew up on these Western translations, to flourish and for the genre to develop with its own Japanese characteristics.
Subsequently, two commercially successful magazines, launched in the 1950s, Uchujin
(1957-2009) and SF Magajin
(1959-) played an equally important role for the next generation of Japanese authors, who are sometimes referred to by academic as “The First Generation Writers” of modern Japanese science fiction.
This so-called first generation of authors includes writers such as Kobo Abe (1924-1993), Shinichi Hoshii (1926-1997), Osamu Tezuka (1928-1989), Sakyo Komatsu (1931-2011) and Yasutaka Tsutsui, who was born in 1934.
Science fiction has now become an important and popular genre in Japan that is still flourishing creatively and commercially today in all formats: book, animation, film and graphic novel.